LTC Thomas Dreisonstok
LTC John E. Mann - 18 March to 12 August 1969
LTC Burton Walrath - 13 August 1969 to early 1970
LOCATION: AO -- Trang Bang northeast 12 miles to Saigon River, and just off LTL-6A ("Six Alpha") to 4 or 5 miles
east -- including the Citadel, the Ho Bo woods, and the Boi Loi woods.
HQ -- Fire Support Pershing
REAR -- Cu Chi Base Camp
OUTPOSTS: -- Fire Support Stuart -- Patrol Base Dees - 6 May to Oct/Nov 1969 -- Patrol Base Laurence
The 2/12th Infantry fought vicious battles in early 1969; the Spring of the year; and during the "Mini-Tet"
holiday. The October 24th firefight - in the Ho Bo Woods - caused Alpha major casualties. The Army claimed
that the North sent down about 110,000 NVA during 1969. An amazing number. We were shipping over about
2,400 a week. So things - replacement wise - were about equal.
COMBAT BATTALIONs IN VIETNAM:
"Throughout the year 1969 the battalion operated northeast of Cu Chi in three traditional enemy strong-
holds, the Ho Bo woods, the Boi Loi woods and the "Citadel". The "Citadel", an area of rice paddies and
secondary growth covers the north-eastern portion of HAU NGHIA province. It had been a resting place and
supply area for the V.C. for many years and was dominated by a well-trained and well equipped enemy force
with many years of combat experience and success in battle to its credit. The battalion’s primary mission was
to destroy the enemy in and around the "Citadel" and return the area to government control."
1 JAN 69
Co. A Operational Control (OPCON) to C/1/5 Mech.
Inf. (the Bobcats)
Co. B & B/2/27 Night Laagered
Co. D in Cu Chi for Stand Down
CRIP in Trang Bang
1 platoon Co. B & 1 plt. Co. C on Road Security along
LTL 6-A (known as Six Alpha)
Co. A 2/12th (& C Co. 1/5th) providing security for Rome Plows clearing land along Six Alpha at Ap Gia Lam -
just north of the cemetary - north of Trang Bang.
2 JAN 69
Co. B at Fire Support Base (FSB) Pershing
Co. D Cu Chi Stand Down. Returns via convoy and replaces Co. C at FSB Stuart.
Co. C (upon relief) moved from Stuart to Pershing.
One (1) platoon B & 1 plt C Road Security.
1 platoon of Bravo 'riffed' from Pershing to Ap Long Muc (vic 520247) on south side of Dry Lake and returned
C Co. OPCON to 3/4 CAV. One platoon of the Cav was at Stuart.
Co. A OPCON to 1/5th Mech for Rome Plow security night laager (NL) at Ap Gia Lam.
3 JAN 69
Co. A OPCON to Mech for Rome Plow operations north of Trang Bang in Xa Bao Me (1/2 click north of
Pagoda). At 3:55pm a Rome Plow hit a large mine and became a "combat loss."
Co.'s B & C at Pershing.
Co. D at Stuart with one platoon of Armor coming in every night for additional security.
Co. B set up a Check Point [road block] along Six Alpha at that nasty little VC village (vic XT525).
Co. C riffed west accross 6-A and the stream to an area west of Rung Cay - to check point at 499259 for
a search. They then moved south a click. Moved through that nasty little VC village and back to Pershing.
Co. D swept the lower end of Six Alpha (TL - 6A).
4 JAN 69
Co. A still OPCON with the Mech & Rome Plows in the Xa Bao Me area east of 6-A and north of Trang
Bang. They took several RPG rounds that severely damaged a Rome Plow.
Co.'s B & C night laagered at FSB Pershing.
Co. D at FSB Stuart.
1 platoon C Co. & 1 plt. D Co. on Road Security.
Co. B (2 platoons) patroled south from Pershing through Ap Truong Gai; Ong Dam (so of the rubber)
Co. C (2 plt.s) patrolled east from Pershing to an area just west of Bo Heo; then between Bo Heo and Suoi Sup
and back to base.
5 JAN 69
A Co., 2/12th Inf. & A/1/5 Mech. established a new night laager north-east of Trang Bang in the vicinity of An
Thoi / An Binh. B & C Co.'s at Pershing. D Co. at Stuart. 1 platoon B Co. & 1 plt. D Co. have Road Security.
Co. B flies north-west out of Pershing; over Six Alpha & the stream to an LZ just north of the Nguyen-van-Tan
rubber plantation. They moved north one click and messed around a little and flew back to base.
Co. C flies NW and lands in a rice paddy - between the Suoi Cao and Nguyen-van-Tan rubber plantations near
Suoi Cao(2) - one mile west of Bravo's LZ. Charlie company moved north about a click and returned to base.
That evening, Bravo on way to their ambush position engaged three VC - just east of that nasty little VC village
vic XT5025. Bravo struck with organic weapons and 81mm mortars. No known results.
6 JAN 69
Co. A 2/12 & 1plt. B/1/5 are night laagered three clicks east of Trang Bang and one click north of Hwy 1.
[From the ARVN 'French Fort' on Hwy 1 go NE one click on the dirt ox-cart road through Ap An Binh.]
While working 1/2 klm. south of the night laager a Rome Plow was damaged by a mine.
Co. B was night laagered (NL) four clicks SE of Pershing in the Xa Troung Dai area - future site of
Patrol Base Dees in MAY. A Bravo AP blew a bush on 12VC with claymores and killed 11 VC (BC).
Moving back to the laager they spotted a group of ten VC and called in artillery on them. At the same time
Bravo was mortared by the VC. No friendly casualties in the exchanges. During the day, other elements of
Bravo riffed south of Round Lake. This element spotted six enemy and they were engaged by a
helicopter light fire team (LFT) resulting in 5 VC KIA(possible).
C Co. at FSB Pershing. Charlie company Eagle Flight to an LZ just west of Ong Dam - one click west of where
Bravo was working. Charlie then flew three clicks east - pass Rd. Lake - to an LZ near Xa Trung Hung where they
received fire from an estimated six VC/NVA. Charlie returned fire with organic weapons and a LFT with
8 JAN 69
Medic SP4 Larry "Doc" E. Stephens (21), Charlie Co, of Walker, AL., perished while on road security in Hua
Nghia Province. Casualty report reads "died of illness or injury". Larry was going home in February.
Co. A still working with the Rome Plows east of Trang Bang.
Co. B & 2 platoons of Co. C at FSB Pershing.
1 platoon of Co. C [Co. C (-)] night laagered north of Xa Soui Sup. During the day they did a local rif and
were flown back to Pershing.
1 platoon of B & 1 plt. of C from Pershing have road security.
Co. B moved by convoy to replace Co. A with Rome
Plows. Alpha trucked to Cu Chi for Stand Down.
9 JAN 69
Co. A Stand Down at Cu Chi.
Co. B, 2/12 Inf. OPCON to B(-)1/5th Mech for Rome Plow security. During the day Bravo (and B/1/5 Mech)
moved their night laager to a new position (vc XT5618) - nearer road 7-A to Trung Lap - between Ap Duong
Trau Nho and Xa Lao Tao. They encounered many booby traps in the area. Between 10 a.m. and 2:30 p.m.: an
APC hit a mine and was a combat loss; another APC hit a mine resulting in 1 U.S. WIA; the Mech was
mortared resulting in 1 US WIA; a Rome Plow was damaged by a mine; and B/1/5 engaged and killed a VC.
[NOTE: The symbol "(-)" used after a company denotes that it is a sub-unit of the company - usually a
platoon. "B(-) 1/5th" (above) means that there is one platoon of Bravo, First of the Fifth, working with us -
and not the entire company.
C Co. at Pershing conducted a rif during the day south between Ong Dam and Bao Me and returned to base.
D Co. at FSB Stuart - with 1 platoon of A/3/34th Armor coming in at night for additional fire support. 1 squad
of Delta was outposted at the Troi Sanh stream culvert along Hwy LTL-19 (3 clicks NW of Trang Bang). This
evening a Delta ambush patrol had a VC
claymore detonated on them as they were moving to their AP site. 3 US WIA were dusted off.
1 platoon of C Co. & 1 plt. D Co. were on Road
10 JAN 69
SP4 Douglas L. Ranshaw (18), Radio Operator, of Evart, MI perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Co. A at Cu Chi for Stand Down.
Co. B working between Ap Duong Tra Nho and Ap Cay Mit Nai protecting Rome Plows received RPG fire.
Co. C night laagered at FSB Pershing. 1 platoon of Charlie riffed to search an area just north of Round Lake
near Pershing, and returned to base. 1 platoon of Charlie had Road Security along with one platoon of Delta.
Shortly after noon the platoon from D Co. detonated a booby trapped hand grenade - on Six Alpha near the
cemetery - resulting in the evacuation of 1 US WIA.
This evening the CRIP platoon received one round of RPG fire when moving to their ambush site.
B Battery, 1/8th Artillery's Lt. John Farley and Sgt. Bert Allen WIA - during a mortar attack on FSB
Pershing - when a round exploded on their guns' sandbagged parapet.
11 JAN 69
Medic SP4 Leavy "Doc" C. Solomon (22) Co. C, 3rd platoon Medic, of Palmetto, GA perished in Hua Nghia
Doc was working with 3rd plt providing escort for the 65th engineers while doing mine sweeping operations
on 6 Alpha. The VC had been setting up booby traps all along the route between Pershing and the ARVN
compound on the outskirts of Trang Bang and placing mines in the road hoping to catch convoy vehicles
using the road. This morning, Doc Leavy was performing some medcap duties with the local farmers and kids
while walking along in front of the engineers. Leavy found one of those mine devices and was killed
instantly when he set it off.
According to Lt Sheehan, "Those sandbag mines were often triggered by a homemade “little bamboo box”
made from a couple opposing segments of bamboo wrapped with bare wire. I don’t think that there was a
lot of quality control. The devise required a large bag of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, a little C4 plastered
around and electrical blasting cap buried in the middle of the fertilizer, and a d-sized battery or a couple
cells of an AN-PRC-25 batteries.The guy that I knew as Solomon was in the road on a medcap, serving the
Vietnamese who came to the road as the engineer’s support vehicles followed behind the mine sweep
team. After he stepped on a mine, I went to the road with my RTO a few others. There was a large crater in
the red earth, from a sandbag mine intended for a vehicle and probably similar to the one that got me
serveral months later. Solomon was laying next to the crater."
Co. A at Cu Chi on Stand Down returned to FSB Pershing on convoy.
Co. B OPCON to A/1/5 Mech (Bobcats) securing Rome Plows in the vicinity of Seven Alpha. At 0145
hours Bravo's ambush patrol sprang an ambush and received rocket propelled grenade and small arms fire
from the VC/NVA. During the day a Bobcat track hit a mine causing minor damage.
Co C at Pershing. 1 plt. of Co. C and 1 plt. of Co. D on Road Security. 2nd platoon of Co. C was 1/2 click (west)
behind 'the school house' on Six Alpha providing security to a MEDCAP team when they heard an explosion.
A booby trap was detonated by 3rd platoon's medic. The platoon was along Six Alpha near the old school
between Check Points Delta & Echo). The booby trap explosion resulted in the death of Specialist "Doc"
Co. D at FSB Stuart.
FSB Pershing was attacked by mortars resulting in 6
US WIA (dusted off).
12 JAN 69
Co.'s A & C at FSB Pershing.
Co. C conducted an Eagle Flight from Pershing to a LZ south of the Ho Bo's near Xa Sa Nho(1) village.
They riffed south two clicks - to the mid point of the village - and were picked up; flown to a new LZ near
Highway 1 where the Rome Plows were working. They moved north and shortly after 11 detonated an
unknown type booby trap resulting in 1 US WIA (evacuated). They returned to the LZ and flew back to base.
Co. D at Stuart received three sniper rounds about mid-afternoon.
Co. B securing Rome Plows with Mech received 16 rounds of enemy mortar fire this evening.
13 JAN 69
Co.'s A & C at FSB Pershing.
Co. B OPCON to 1/5th MECH for Rome Plow security.
Co. D at FSB Stuart.
CRIP at Cu Chi for Stand Down.
1 platoon A & 1 plt. D on Road Security.
Co. C conducted several Eagle Flights many clicks SWW of Pershing near Go Da Ha (Hieu Thien) to X.Giang
Chanh along the Van Co Dam River then returned to base.
This turned out to be "one bad day for one platoon of Alpha" on Road Security: At 0930H the Engineers
working with Alpha detonated a large mine on Six Alpha near Check Point Echo (XT501247). 1 US KIA, an
engineer, and 1 US WIA (evacuated). At 1456 hours at Check Point Hotel (XT513262) - the intersection of Six
Alpha and the Pershing access road - a trip wire activated booby trapped grenade exploded; wounding 2 US
WIA (evac). A little over an hour latter another trip-wired grenade went off
wounding Ron Guild, Alpha Co. 1st platoon (XT513262).
14 JAN 69
Co. A at Pershing.
Co. B with B/1/5th Mech working Rome Plows 2 clicks SE of Trang Bang in Ap Phu.
Co. C at Pershing. Co. C(-) at Stuart performed an Eagle Flight to an LZ seven clicks due west of Trang Bang and
just south of the Oriental River. [Unusual!] In late afternoon a VC surrendered to C(-).
Co. D at FSB Stuart (Trang Bang).
Co.'s A & D have Road Security today.
15 JAN 69
Co.'s A & C at FSB Pershing.
Co. D at FSB Stuart.
1 platoon of Co. A & 1 platoon of Co D conduct road sweeps along Six Alpha (Road Security). Alpha
patrolled north of Check Point Delta (CP D) and Delta south.
Co. B OPCON to B/1/5 MECH four clicks south of Trang Bang securing Rome Plow operations in area.
In the late afternoon a First of the Fifth track hit a very large mine killing one and wounding four Bobcats.
The APC was a 'Combat Loss.'
Co. C conducted a combat air-assault (CAS) to an LZ south of the Trang Bang River. [Again, this is an
unusual place for the 2/12th to "work." There must have been intel about something in this area.] ARVN's
were flown in north of C Co. Charlie conducted a search to the east along the river to a pick-up zone (PZ) near
the TL-6, An Hop, Tha La bridge area. As they were moving along the river they recieved M-79 incoming in late
morning with no US casualties. They returned fire with organic weapons and artillery. Negative results.
16 JAN 69
Co.'s A & C at Pershing.
Co. A conducted an Eagle Flight to the southern Boi Loi - LZ 1 click north of Xa Moi (3). Vic XT5129.
Alpha riffed north a shot distance; encountered two VC and engaged them wwithorganic weapons and
with negative results. Alpha then proceeded to a pick up zone (PZ) and returned to base.
Co. B with 1plt C/1/5 Mech three clicks south of Trang Bang supporting Rome Plow operations in Ap An Phu.
Near noon a Rome Plow exploded a mine in the vicinity of Ap An Khuong area - 2 clicks south of the Trang
Bang bridge - causing one US WIA.
One platoon of C Co. and one platoon of Co. D on Road Security.
In the early morning Co. C discovered a non booby trapped grenade on their way from Pershing to Six
Alpha. At the same time a trip-wired booby trap grenade exploded wounding one soldier (1 US WIA)
who was dusted off.
17 JAN 69
A Co. KIA's:
PFC Frank H. Browne II (19) of Fort Worth, TX
SP4 Bruce M. Reiter (20) of New York, NY perished in Binh Duong Province.
Co.'s A & C at FSB Pershing were subjected to a short mortar barrage shortly after 4 a.m. They returned fire
with small arms, mortars and artillery. There were no friendly casualties.
Co. B working with Bobcats and Rome Plows.
One platoon Co. C and 1 plt. Co. D performed road security. 1 platoon of Co. D securing bridge.
1 platoon of Co. A riffed 1 click due south of Pershing thru Ap Truong Giai, swung west to a bridge over a
small stream (behind that nasty little VC village on Six Alpha between Check Point Echo & CP Foxtrot). After
crossing the stream they went 1/4 click south (east of, and behind the village) and were to return to base.
Close to 1 p.m. Alpha came under intense small arm, machine gun, and rocket propelled grenade fire
resulting in 2 US WIA and 2 VC KIA (poss). Two hours later, Alpha came under automatic weapons fire and
returned fire with artillery, helicopter gunships and their own organic weapons. 1 US KIA and 4 US WIA
(evacuated) during the firefight
17 JAN 69 CONTACT SITE
17 JAN 69 CONTACT SITE
Alpha came under fire - for the second time - in this area (XT 514248) on the northern edge of Ap [hamlet]
Truong Giai. The site is about 1 1/2 Clicks SW of Pershing - beyond 'the cemetery.'
The red symbols denote the cemetery south of FSB Pershing. The white lines are ox-cart roads. A road
intersection can clearly be seen in the lower left-hand corner of this map. Pale yellow/green areas are open
fields and rice paddy. Thin green lines are hedgerows. Very small pale yellow squares surrounded by green
are hooch’s. Large pale yellow/green areas surrounded by green hedgerows are paddies and open fields.
18 JAN 69
Co A: CPT Richard Wiggins is replaced by CPT Charles Boyd. Wiggins reports to BN as S-2 Officer until April.
Co.'s A & D at FSB Pershing. B Co. OPCON to 1/5th Inf (M) securing Rome Plows south of Trang Bang. Bravo's
night laager (NL) continues to be with The Mech and Rome Plows south of Trang Bang. Co. D at FSB Stuart
(Trang Bang bridge). One plt. of Co. D securing the bridge. One platoon of Co. D and 1 plt. of Co. C have Road
Security. Co. A performed an aerial flight to an LZ at Xa Bao Dung (vic XT6126) six clicks north-east of Trung
Lap. In the late morning - just east of the village - Alpha destroyed a bunker with four shrapnel riddled bodies
in it. 4 VC KIA (BC). Shortly after noon Alpha killed an NVA soldier. 1 NVA KIA (BC). Co. A then returned to
base. On their way to an ambush site the CRIP platoon received sniper fire 2 clicks north of Trang Bang in Xa
Bao Me. The CRIP did not fire back and there were no casualties. The evening of the 18th FSB Pershing was
mortared with six to ten rounds of "incoming." There were no casualties and the base returned fire with 4.2"
mortar & 105mm cannon fire.
19 JAN 69
Co.'s A & C at Pershing. Co. B still under the Operational Control (OPCON) of The Mech. Co. D at Stuart. One (1)
platoon of Company A and one (1) platoon of Co. D sweep TL-6A onRoad Security for the Pershing resupply
convoy. One (1) platoon of Delta at Trang Bang Bridge for security. In the early morning/night hours of
January 19th FSB Pershing received a single round of "incoming." During the day Company E provided security
for a MEDCAP at Six Alpha's Check Point Echo - in the vicinity of that nasty little VC village.
26 JAN 69
Co C while conducting a RIF near XT525216 around 1315 hrs, engages 6 VC in a tunnel complex. The VC return
fire with SA. In pursuit, Co C kills 3 VC and takes 4 VC POW's; engagement results in a dustoff with 1 POW and
2 U.S. WIA's.
1 FEB 69
Co.'s A, B(-), 2/12th and 2 platoons Co. C, 2/27th Infantry (OPCON to 2/12th) at a night laager in Boi Loi at
(XT533353) - hearafter refered to as "Boi Loi NL" - 500 meters north of Boi Loi village and Hwy 238. The Boi Loi
NL was in Ap Soc Lao, which is 4 clicks west-northwest of the Mushroom and just north of Boi Loi village. Boi
Loi NL remained open for some five days, and the companies stationed there were known as Task Force
Second of the Twelfth (TF 2/12). [Map Sheet 6231-II] 1 platoon of Co. B OPCON to 2/27th Inf at FSB Reed
(XT477126) six clicks due south of Trang Bang. Co. C at FSB Pershing and responsible for securing the northern
6A road. Co. D at FSB Stuart and responsible for securing the southern portion of 6A, and the Trang Bang
Bridge. At 1030 hours an engineer tank hit a mine west of Six Alpha, behind the school house, at (XT500256).
No casualties. Co. A (out of Boi Loi NL) flew 7 clicks southwest to a landing zone(LZ) at (XT496308) around 11
am. The LZ was in the rice paddy and hedgerow area south of the Boi Loi woods. Two hours latter Alpha
received automatic weapons fire in the vicinity of the LZ. They returned fire with organic weapons, called in
artillery and gunships and air force airstrikes. Three US soldiers were wounded in action and dusted off. An
estimated 20 VC were killed by air. At 5:30 pm the contact was broken and Alpha returned to base. [3 US WIA.
20 VC KBA(poss)] Meanwhile, the Wolfhounds at Boi Loi NL flew eleven clicks southeast to an LZ 2 clicks south
of the Mushroom. There was no contact during the day and the 2/27th(-) returned to base.
2 FEB 69
Task Force 2-12 in Boi Loi NL at (XT533353); Co. A 2/12th Inf Co. B(-) 2/12th Inf 2 platoons Co. C 2/27th Inf. 1
platoon Co. B continues OPCON to 2/27th Infantry at Fire Support Base Reed (XT477126). Co. C at FSB Pershing
Co. D at FSB Stuart Co. A conducted a combat air assault at 11 am into an LZ at (XT503312) south of the Boi Loi
woods and 600 meters northeast of the previous days LZ and contact area. This time Alpha brought the two
platoons of Co. C 2/27th with them. The area was searched with negative contact and then the companies
returned to the Boi Loi night laager. Meanwhile, Co. B (minus the platoon south of Trang Bang) conducted a
patrol out of the Boi Loi NL, one click west to (XT523352) where they turned left and went southwest to
(XT504344) where they turned left again and patrolled east one click to a pickup zone (PZ) at (XT516345) and
flew back to Boi Loi NL. Co. C (at Pershing) worked with the engineers to clear the northern portion of
highway Six Alpha for the daily convoys that would travel over the road. A command detonated mine at
(XT502253) was blown on Company C and the engineers resulting in 1 US KIA and 1 US WIA. Co. D (at Stuart)
cleared the southern portion of Six Alpha.
3 FEB 69
Co.'s A, B(-) 2/12th and 2 plts Co. C 2/27th at Boi Loi NL (XT533353). Co. A provided security for the Boi Loi
night laager and conducted local patrols until 3 pm when they were called on to support the Three-quarter
Cav who were in contact. Alpha flew southeast to (XT576287) to support the 3/4th Cav who were fighting 2
clicks due south of the Mushroom. The Cav and Co. A set up a night defensive position (NDP) on the contact
site. In response to the absence of Alpha at the Boi Loi night laager, Co. C (at FSB Pershing) flew up two
platoons to help secure the night laager in the Boi Loi's. Meanwhile, the Wolfhounds at Boi Loi NL flew due
north across the Saigon River where outside of and due north of the village of Thanh An, they came under
sporadic sniper fire at 11 am at (XT537382). Negative casualties. During the day, 1 platoon Co. B (with
Wolfhounds at FSB Reed south of Trang Bang) patrolled five clicks north-northeast to (XT513165), turned
south to (XT515154) and returned to Reed (XT477125). At 7:30 pm the Boi Loi night laager received a mortar
attack that wounded one US soldier.
NOTES - 3-4 FEBRUARY:
SITUATION (night of 3 Feb / morning of 4 Feb 69):
BOI LOI NIGHT LAAGER (XT533353)
Co. A 1 platoon Co.
B 3 plts Co.
C 2 plts Co.
C, 2/27 1 plt
FSB REED (Wolfhounds) (XT477125)
Co. B 1 plt
FSB PERSHING (XT519255)
Co. C 2plts
HHC 2/12th 1/8th Artillery 1 battery
FSB STUART (XT501194)
Co. D 4 platoons
HO BO NIGHT LAAGER (XT571283)
Co. A 2/12 3 platoons
Co. C 2/27 1 plt
D Troop, 3/4 Cavalry
LRRP Team #25
THE LAAGER FIGHT
4 FEB 69
A Co KIA:
SSG James D. Camp (21), from Winterset, Iowa, perished in Hua Nghia
NIGHT LAAGER & BATTLE
Co. A, 2/12th Inf - with D Troop, 3/4 CAV, Co. C, 2/27th Inf and LRRP
Team 25 - fought a major engagement in the Ho Bo woods at their
night laager (XT582283). The NDP was on the edge of the (destroyed)
rubber plantation of Don Dien Beyssac.
Note the location of the battle site - black square pointed to by letter
opener - in relation to 'the Mushroom' of the Saigon River (and read
the story below). The entire area south of the river was 'the Ho Bo
woods.' Defensive artillery fire was directed at the VC/NVA
(locations indicated by small triangles).
Detail of 4 Feb 69 battle site:
Black Square: U.S. night laager location (XT582283).
Black Arrows: Axis of Ground attacks by VC/NVA. VC mortar attack
came from direction of top arrow.
At 0125 hours the night laager came under small arms, machinegun
and RPG fire from the north and southwest. Within four minutes B
Battery, 1/8th Artillery, at FSB Pershing, was firing upon the enemy.
At 0315 hrs the enemy mortared the laager with five or six rounds
and A & D Batteries, 3/13th Artillery fired in response. B Battery,
1/8th was also firing high explosive as well as illumination. They had
one secondary explosion - meaning they must have hit one of the
mortar or RPG positions. The ground attack caused 2 U.S. KIAs and 11
U.S. WIAs with unknown enemy results.
".......Private First Class Lester Grigsby of A Battery, 1st Battalion, 8th Artillery.... distinguished himself
while serving as forward observer attached to Company A, 2d Battalion, 12th Infantry.
While established in a night laager position, Company A came under a massive communist assault. During
the initial contact, Grigsby secured a radio and moved through the murderous Viet Cong fire to the
perimeter and began adjusting artillry fire on the enemy.
After giving the initial corrections to the FDC, his radio was rendered inoperable by an RPG round.
Undaunted, he exposed himself to a holocaust of exploding projectiles as he returned to secure another
radio. After obtaining a radio, he returned through the bullet swept area to the perimeter and effectively
resumed adjusting artillery on the hostile force.
His valorous actions contributed immeasurably to the defeat of the hostile force...." [From Citation.
Source: Tropic Lightning News, Vol. 4 No. 2, March 31,1969.]
NOTES - 4 FEB 69:
During the day, the companies returned to the Boi Loi NL.
SITUATION (night of 4th / morning of 5th):
BOI LOI NL
Co. A 4 pltoons
Co. B(-) 3 plts
Co. C 2/27th 2 plts
Co. C 4 plts
1/8 ARTY 1 battery
Co. D 4 plts
FSB REED (Wolfhound)
Co. B 1 plt
5 FEB 69
Boi Loi NL: Co.'s A, B(-) 2/12 and 2 plts Co. C 2/27
Pershing: Co. C 2/12
Stuart: Co. D 2/12
1 plt Co. B with the Wolfhounds south of Trang Bag
Co. C(-) 2/27th Inf worked southeast out of the Boi Loi night laager. In the jungle about one click
southeast at (XT544344) they had heavy contact east of Bung Binh village with an estimated company of
VC at 9:30 am. The VC fired RPGs and heavy automatic weapons at the Wolfhounds. They responded
with their organic weapons, artillery fire, helicopter gun ships and Air Force air strikes. One Wolfhound
was killed and one wounded and dusted off in the action. VC losses were unknown.
Around noon Co.'s A and B 2/12th flew to a landing zone some four clicks south of the Wolfhound
contact. The LZ at (XT544307) was between the Ho Bo and Boi Loi woods near Six Alpha. The companies
spent the afternoon trying to close the back door on the enemy and then flew back to their laager in
the Boi Loi.
The one platoon of Bravo south of Trang Bang established a blocking position for a Wolfhound
operation. Bravo had negative contact, but the Wolfhounds got one VC in An Hung.
Establishment of PB Granite XT597293
6 FEB 69
1 platoon Co. B still working with the Wolfhounds south of Trang Bang.
Co.'s A, B(-) 2/12 and 2 plts of C 2/27 still up at the Boi Loi NL.
Co. C at Pershing
Co. D at Stuart
Co.'s A and B conducted local patrols around Boi Loi night laager. Boi Loi NL closed and companies flown
out; Co. B to Pershing and Co. A to Stuart to replace Co. D.
Co. C (Pershing) and Co. D (Stuart) combat air assault at 1:30 pm to a landing zone (LZ) at (XT586290)
near the February 3rd/4th contact site. They searched the area around the LZ and then established a
patrol base at (XT597293) one click northeast of the landing zone. Patrol base is later named PB Granite.
Meanwhile, one platoon of Co. A, 1/5th Mechanized Infantry (Bobcats) moved north from Trung Lap to
join the Warriors for the night at the newly established patrol base at (XT597293) two clicks south of the
Mushroom area of the Saigon River.
8 FEB 69
A Co. KIA:
SP4 Michael J. Spear (23) of Chicago, IL perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Co.'s A (Stuart) and B (Pershing) provided one platoon each for Six Alpha road security. Co. B detonated
a booby trap in a hedgerow resulting in 1 US WIA (dusted off).
Co. C, at the Ho Bo patrol base, moved 1500 meters west, turned south for 1 click and then moved
northeast to return to the patrol base.
Co. D continued to improve the Ho Bo patrol base during the day.
B Co. KIA:
PFC Russell Byrd Adams (23) of Atlanta, GA perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Co. B, 2nd platoon, under command of 1Lt. Howard McKinney were providing security for the engineers
sweeping Six Alpha for mines when they were ambushed 100 yards south of the little bridge and old ARVN
compound (we called the French Fort). Co. B received small arms and RPG fire from an enemy force of
unknown size. Bravo returned fire with their own organic weapons, helicopter gun ships and artillery. In
the exchange, Pfc. Adams was killed, Sergeant Larry Fontana was hit in the lower leg by RPG shrapnel, Doc
(Pete) Hernandez was shot in the stomach and Lieutenant McKinney had an AK-47 round kiss his knee.
MC KINNEY SILVER STAR CITATION
".... First Lieutenant McKinney distinguished himself by heroic actions on 9 February 1969, while serving as
a platoon leader with Company B, 2d Battalion, 12th Infantry, 25th Infantry Division in the Republic of
Vietnam. While on a road clearing mission, Lieutenant McKinney's platoon was ambushed by an unknown
size enemy force. Lieutenant McKinney received a painful leg wound in the initial enemy barrage. Despite
his wound he directed his platoon's fire against the enemy. When one flank was threatened, Lieutenant
McKinney crawled across the open road, exposing himself to the enemy's deadly fire, in order to direct the
threatened element. Lieutenant McKinney, once again disregarding his own personal safety and his
wound, crawled to the forward most position of the platoon where wounded men were lying. In this
forward position he administered life saving first aid and personally assisted them to covered positions.
Lieutenant McKinney's actions were responsible for saving several lives and for the defeat of the
insurgent force.... "
Meanwhile, on the 9th; Co.'s C and D, in the Ho Bo woods, flew 3 clicks southeast of the patrol base to a
landing zone at (XT627282). Moving off the LZ to the west they came under heavy small arms, automatic
weapons and RPG fire. They replied with organic weapons, artillery, helicopter gunships and Air force air
strikes. 3 US soldier were killed and two wounded in the action. Co. D bore the brunt of the battle with
Specialist Hester, Private Ross and Doc Neal killed in action.
Reacting to the contact in the Ho Bo, Co.'s A(-), B and D 1/5th Mechanized Infantry moved to the area in the
late afternoon. After contact was broken 1 platoon Co. A and Co. C(-) 1/5th moved west to the 2/12th's
patrol base for the night. They were released from OPCON to the Second of the Twelfth the next morning.
10 FEB 69
Co. A FSB Stuart XT501194
Co. B FSB Pershing XT518257
Co.'s C and D PB Granite
Co. A secured the Trang Bang Bridge and Co.'s A and B provided one platoon each for road security on Six
Alpha. Shortly after noon, Co. D found a VC body at (XT621284) 3 clicks east-southeast of the Ho Bo patrol
base in the vicinity of yesterdays contact.
The 1/5th Mech were released from OPCON to the 2/12th at 8 am.
11 FEB 69
Co. A Stuart XT501194
Co. B Pershing XT518257
Co. C and D Patrol Base Ho Bo XT597293
Co.'s A and B doing the usual thing.
Co. C at Ho Bo patrol base flew 3 clicks northeast to a landing zone at (XT613315) just south of old highway
(TL-15) - halfway between the Thai Thai stream and (the village of) Xa Duoc on the Saigon River. Charlie
Company moved northwest towards Duoc and turned left just short of the small temple in the town.
Charlie moved southwest to a pick-up zone at (XT603313) and returned to base without contact.
[Interesting to note that Co. C were in the area of the present day Vietnamese tourist trap known as "the
Tunnels of Cu Chi."]
Co. D went OPCON to the 3rd Brigade's 2/22nd (Mechanized) Infantry - Triple Duce - around 1 pm and
worked with the mech until the next day.
12 FEB 69
Co. A FSB Stuart XT501194
Co. B FSB Pershing XT518257
Co.'s C & D Patrol Base Granite XT597293 - Co C is OPCON'D to th 1/5th Bobcats
Co. A secured the Trang Bang Bridge and Co.'s A and B supplied one platoon each for road security along
LTL 6-A. Co. A covered the southern (or lower) portion and Co. B covered the northern (or upper) portion
of Six Alpha.
Co. D, working with the Triple Duce since yesterday, flew in to Fire Support Base Pershing by CH-47
Chinook at first light.
'Bobcats' and 'Warriors' [Co. C] engage tunnel complex six
miles north of Trung Lap near Xa Sa Nho(2)
Co. C went OPCON to the Bobcats of the 1/5th (M) Infantry - most likely Co. B First of the Fifth. Charlie
company and the Mech rode 3500 meters southwest of PB Ho Bo and at 10 am discovered and destroyed 20
meters of tunnel at (XT575266). An hour later the Mech troopers detonated a mine - killing one and
wounding two. A half hour later, in the same area, a 2/12th infantryman fell into a punji pit and had to be
dusted off. The Bobcats and Warriors continued on to establish a blocking force south of the Ho Bo woods
(vic XT564284 and XT575277) - oriented to the south to receive any enemy escaping the mechanized forces
of Co. A and Co. C, 1/5th Infantry who were driving north. At the end of operations Co. C 2/12th were
picked up by the Bobcats of Charlie company and driven back to the Ho Bo patrol base where Charlie
company of the Mech spent the night.
13 FEB 69
FSB Pershing Co.'s B and D
FSB Stuart Co. A
PB Granite - Co. C (OPCON to Co. C, 1/5th (Mech) Inf}
Co.'s A and B did their usual thing - one platoon each on road security.
Co. D (-) patrolling out of Pershing worked north of the old French Fort at the little bridge over Six Alpha
and returned to Pershing without contact. Route: Pershing to XT503263, XT498277, XT504270 and return to
14 FEB 69
FSB Pershing Co.'s B and D
FSB Stuart Co. A
Patrol Base Granite - Co.C 2/12th (OPCON to Mech), 1 platoon Co. A and Co. C(-) 1/5th (Mech) Inf
Co. A secured Trang Bang Bridge and road security, and (just for a change of pace) Co. D took over the
northen Six Alpha road security.
Co. C 2/12th and Co. C 1/5th conducted local security around the Ho Bo patrol base.
15 FEB 69
B Co. KIA:
PFC Lewis R. Valentine (20) of Paoli, PA perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Co. A FSB Stuart XT501194
Co.'s B and D FSB Pershing XT518257
Co. C Ho Bo patrol base (along with Co. C(-) and 1 plt Co. A 1/5th (M) Inf
Co. A and D performed road security on Six Alpha.
One platoon of Co. B patrolled north of Pershing to Square Lake and returned. Route: Pershing (XT518257)
north to XT520268 northeast to Square Lake area (XT532275) and returned to Pershing. During the patrol
two Bravo infantrymen were wounded by a booby trap in a hedgerow and dusted off. One of the two - Pfc.
Valintine - died.
Meanwhile, 1 platoon of Co. C, riding the tracks of Co. C(-) 1/5th Mechanized Infantry, left the Ho Bo patrol
base and riffed southwest 1400 meters to (XT590280), swung southeast 800 meters, did a little loop and
returned to the patrol base.
OPERATION TOAN THANG II ENDS.
Midnight 15 Feb 69 - It began 1 June 1968.
OPERATION TOAN THANG III begins
16 FEB 69
Co. A FSB Stuart XT501194
Co.'s B and D FSB Pershing XT518257
Co. C OPCON to 1/5 (M) Inf at Patrol Base Ho Bo XT597293
Co. A secured the Trang Bang Bridge and provided one platoon to patrol lower Six Alpha (Hwy LTL 6-A).
One platoon of Company D provided road security for the upper portion of Six Alpha. During the patrol Co.
D detonated a mine in a hedgerow at (XT504254) in 1 WIA dusted off.
CRIP platoon at Trang Bang patrolled north of Stuart to (XT500220), swung southwest to the northern limits
of the city at (XT488207) and returned to base.
Co. B(-) moved south-southeast out of Fire Support Base Pershing and moved 1500 meters to a checkpoint
at (XT524242). They then turned southwest for 800 meters to (XT518237), retraced their steps, moving
northeast over a click to (XT533244). They then moved northwest to return to Pershing.
Meanwhile, Co. C - working with the Mech's Co. C - conducted a search south of the patrol base in the Ho
Bo's. At (XT566264) they engaged and killed one VC.
2-12 Inf Casualties;
Combat Losses of Major Items (2-12 Inf);
.45 Cal Pistol................1
M79 Grenade Launch....8
Enemy losses (by 2nd Brigade);
VC/NVA KIA (BC)...........1797
VC/NVA KIA (POSS).......876
[SOURCE: 2d Bde 25th Div AAR Op Toan Thang II 1Jun68-16Feb69]
17 FEB 69
C Co. continues to operate in the vicinity of Xa Sa Nho(2).
22 FEB 69
'Bobcats' of the 1/5th MECH opcon to 2/12th in Boi Loi.
D Co. KIA:
SP4 Miguel A. Gonzalez-Rivera (20); and
SGT John W. Thomas (20) of Louisburg, NC perished in Binh Duong Province.
23 FEB 69
B Co. KIA:
SP4 John W. Washington (19) of Macon, GA died of wounds (DOW) received in Hua Nghia Province.
25 FEB 69
Cu Chi Base Camp sapper attack this evening.
26 FEB 69
CU CHI. A massive rocket attack struck Cu Chi Base Camp followed by a ground attact by sappers who
destroyed nine Chinook heavy lift helicopters. More than twenty enemy were killed and several captured.
28 FEB 69
C Co. KIA:
PFC Bruce E. Reed (20) of Peekskill, NY perished in Hua Nghia Province.
C Co., working with the 'Bobcats' RECON Plt three miles NW of Trang Bang - in the southern Suoi Cau
rubber plantation - east of Go Dau Ha, vic XT4525 fought a major engagement during which one of the
Mech's tracks was destroyed. PFC Reed and one Bobcat were killed, and three Bobcats were wounded in
COMMANDER: LTC Mann - 18Mar to 12Aug1969
HQ: FSB Pershing
The month of March was characterized by continued heavy activity in all Brigade areas. The newly
executed offensive had gained full momentum. The Division intensified its search for the enemy through
extensive ground reconnaissance, air-mobile operations, and widespread aerial reconnaissance. This
approach brought success, as elements of the Division began to hit the enemy in his staging areas.
2 MAR 69
D Co. KIA's:
SGT Joseph L. Biddle (22) of Berlin, NJ
SP4 Peter A. Duperry (21) of Whittier, CA
PFC Antonio M. Garcia (23) of Needles, CA perished in Hua Nghia Province.
3 MAR 69
ELSEWHERE IN VIETNAM:
General Abrams is briefed that "'the so-called 'war of liberation' has increasingly become an NVA war." In
October 1965, NVA comprised 26 percent of VC/NVA maneuver and combat support strength, while today
it is 70 plus."
[Source: SORLEY, Lewis. VIETNAM CHRONICLES: The Abrams Tapes 1968-1972. Pg. 134.]
4 MAR 69
C Co. KIA:
SP4 Richard L. Deimler (21) of Hummelstown, PA perished in Hua Nghia Province.
SFC John Partee 3rd PSG is seriously injured from a fragmentation wound and dies in the hospital on March
29 in Long Binh hospital.
"Among the most successful operations during the month were in areas controlled by the 2nd Brigade
deep within the CITADEL and BOI LOI WOODS. On March 4th, Company C, 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry,
performed a combat assault only eight miles northwest of CU CHI (XT547250) and a few kilometers south
of the hamlet Sa Nho (2) and encountered a heavy volume of fire from a well concealed and entrenched
enemy battalion from the 88th NVA Regiment. The contact was reinforced by a task force of three rifle,
one mechanized, and one tank company. Three thousand rounds of supporting artillery were fired. This
engagement lasted until 1800 hours. An evening sweep of the area revealed 84 enemy dead. The
combined forces established a night defensive position in the area. Early the next morning this position
received a heavy attack by fire and a subsequent ground attack. Artillery, helicopters and fighters broke
the assault, and caused the enemy to leave another 74 dead on the battlefield. U.S. casualties, by
contrast, were light: 11 killed, 37 wounded." (quarterly Report ending 30 April, 69 25th Div.
At 0535 hours, the 1/5th Company C night perimeter, located along Highway 237, 4 kilometers northwest of
Trung Lap, received small arms and RPG fire. Fire was returned with organic weapons and helicopter
gunships. There were no friendly casualties.
At 0745 hours, Companies C and D of the 2/12th Infantry made an airmobile combat assault into Grid XT
5425, several kilometers northwest of the Company C, 1/5th(M) night perimeter. They immediately
established heavy contact and Companies A and C, 1/5th(M) were dispatched to reinforce the contact.
At 1308 hours, Company A requested a Dust-off at XT 556258 for one Bobcat with a gunshot wound. At 1315
hours, Company C requested a Dust-off for three Bobcats with gunshot wounds. At 1327 hours, Companies
A and C arrived in the area of the 2/12th Infantry contact.
At 1340 hours, 1/5th Company C requested a Dust-off for five wounded Bobcats. At 1345 hours, Company A
requested a Dust-off for two wounded Bobcats.
At 1432 hours, Company D, 2/12th Infantry cleared the area of contact and Companies A and C, 1/5th(M)
began a sweep of the contact area. At 1703 hours, the mech companies reported that they were no longer
receiving enemy fire. The dead bodies of enemy soldiers along with weapons had been located in a
search of the contact area.
At 1749 hours, 1/5th Company C reported that two APCs had been hit by RPG fire and one was on fire.
Company C requested a Dust-off at 1757 hours for eleven wounded Bobcats. At 1851 hours, Company C
requested a Dust-off for one wounded. At 1933 hours, a Dust-off was requested for six Bobcats from
Company A with fragmentation wounds.
At 2019 hours, at XT 560263, 1/5th Company C received 3 RPG rounds and some small arms fire. At 2045
hours, Company C reported that all its APCs were now on Highway 7A, in the area of Trung lap. At 2101
hours, they closed their night perimeter. At 2111 hours, Company B closed their night perimeter.
During the day’s contact two Bobcats from Company C were killed and Companies A and C suffered a total
of 38 wounded. C 2/12th reports 1 KIA in the action.
5 MAR 69
D Co. KIA's:
SP4 William T. Harris (23) of Clarksville, TN;
SP4 Clayton A. Songle (21) of Minneapolis, MN; and
PFC Stanley B. Ziegler (20) of Cedar Pines Park, CA perished in Hua Nghia Province.
On March 05, 1969, Company A, 1/5th(M) along with Companies C and D, 2/12th Infantry, were in a
combined night perimeter at XT 548251, near the area of the previous day’s contact. At 0451 hours, the
perimeter began to receive mortar, RPG and small arms fire from the north. A flare ship and helicopter
light fire team were requested. At 0536 hours, two Dust-offs were requested for at least 12 litter and more
ambulatory casualties. At 0650 hours, the Dust-offs were completed.
At 0700 hours, 1/5th Company B began a road sweep of Highway 1 and then Highway 7A.
At 0710 hours, Company A began a search of the area north of the night perimeter. At 0840 hours, Company
C and the recon Platoon began movement to link up with Company A. They reached the area at 1105 hours.
The day was spent policing enemy bodies, weapons and equipment from the area of contact.
Company A and Company C, and the Recon Platoon, 1/5th(M) closed FSB Patton by 1730 hours. There were
three Bobcats from Company A killed in the day’s action. D 2/12th reports 3 KIA's during the action.
9 MAR 69
Medic SP4 John "Doc" R. Thielen is wounded.
He dies on the 18th.
10 MAR 69
A Co KIA:
PFC Cecil W. "C.W." Tillman (20), 1st Plt, of Memphis, TN perished in Hua Nghia Province.
"C.W. was killed when we were working with the 1/5th Mech. He was on the APC and bent over when a VC
claymore, in a spider hole, hit him," said Joe Amari. "He had been awarded the Silver Star for the day
Reiter killed [17Jan69], he never got it - he was killed before he saw it."
11 MAR 69
A Co. KIA's:
SP4 Donald L. Fowler (25) of St. Louis, MO;
PFC Melvin Guyton (20) of Hamtramck, MI; and
PFC George J. Smith, Jr. (19) of New York, NY perished in Hua Nghia Province.
14 MAR 69
Back in The World; a daughter was born to Co. A's Spc4 Jose S. Paz.
THE NIGHT LAAGER BATTLE near Trung Lap
18 MAR 69
Co C iconducts a CA out to an area south of Sa Nho (2) where they make contact and spend the day in
pursuit of the enemy. Contact is broken off late in the afternoon and the company sets up a NL site. The
1/5th is located near by.
C Co. KIA:
PFC Loren C. Jones (20) of Unaka, NC perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Medic SP5 Leonard "Doc" Dodson (20) - assigned to Co. C from HHC Medical Section - of New York, NY
perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Medic SP4 John Roger "Doc" Thielen - wounded on the 9th - perished of his wounds. Thielen's company
assignment is unknown.
Medic SP4 Bob "Doc" Meyer (RPG) (3rd Plt, C Co.)
Alpha's night laager was attacked. 22 enemy were killed.
19 MAR 69
Co C - Just after 0030, the VC attack Company C's night laager. The company is not dug in well and is
postioned behind a rice paddy wall. The VC attack from the wood line located to their south with RPG's,
AW and SA fire. Bruce Solem says "I am with Bowden and Mikita and all we can do is raise our weapons and
fire blindly toward the enemy while lobbing gernades". Sgt. Buckley on the the left flank is working with
his gunner Richard Satterthwaite trying to repel the attack. Buckley hears a RPG being launched but before
he can say or do anything, it hits, killing Satch and hitting him in the right shoulder. After that,he says he
does not remember much. Dennis will end up in Japan in the hospital and spend months and months in
LTC John Mann, USA (Retired) - who took command of the battalion that day - wrote about the 18 March
battle (and the April 27th night attack) in VIETNAM magazine [February 2001, Vol. 13 No.5]:
"Company C did quite well that night. They had two killed and 11 wounded. The Communists lost at least
32 men, and we captured 12 AK-47s, several rocket launchers and a .50-caliber machine gun." - LTC Mann
C Co. KIA:
PFC Richard D. Satterhwaite (21) of Butte, MT perished in Hua Nghia Province.
Results of C Co.'s night laager battle during which Charlie received small arms, machinegun and mortar
fire; Charlie Co. fought back with artillery support and was credited with 32 VC/NVA KIA (BC) and 30
VC/NVA KIA (poss.).
20 MAR 69
A Co KIA:
PFC Filemon Serrano (22) from Farmington, New Mexico perished in Hau Nghia Province.
A Co.'s night laager came under attack at 0218 hours. Artillery supported Alpha with high explosive rounds.
26 VC/NVA were KIA (BC).
25 MAR 69
B Co. at FSB Stuart mortared.
28 MAR 69
A Co. attacked with small arms, machine guns and rocket propelled grenades. Results: 16 VC/NVA KIA (BC),
6 VC/NVA KBA (BC) and 5 VC/NVA KBA (poss). D Co. working four clicks due west of FSB Pershing - on the
edge of the Dong Tri Sung rubber plantation - made contact at 1420 hours and moved one quarter click
south. By 1633 hours they were pinned down and call for a helicopter light fire team (LFT) and a heavy fire
29 MAR 69
B Co. KIA's:
SP4 Terry J. Barnholt (20) of Garden Grove, CA
PFC Thomas A. Wiese (20) of Mullen, NE perished in Hua Nghia Province.
C Co - DOW:
Sergeant First Class John L. Partee (38) of Concord, NC perished in Binh Duong Province.
Sergeant Partee, 3rd Plt Sgt, died from wounds incurred during firefight of March 4th.
As of February, unit configurations for
1st Brigade: 4/9th, 3/22nd, 4/23rd (M)
2nd Brigade: 2/14th, 2/34 (M), 2/12th, 1/5th (M),
3rd Brigade: 1/27th, 2/22nd (M)
BRAVO NEAR THE LITTLE BRIDGE
D Co. KIA's:
SP4 Joe E. Hester (22) of Mayfield, KY
PFC Milton A. Ross (20) of Omaha, NE perished in Binh Duong Province.
Medic SP4 Thomas M. "Doc" Neal (20) of Hartford, CT
9 FEB 69
Co. A at Stuart
Co. B at Pershing
Co.'s C and D at PB Granite
Co. A secured Fire Support Base Stuart and the Trang Bang bridge, as well as providing one platoon
for road security on the southern portion of highway LTL 6-A.